Proposal for COP3
October 20, 1997
Interested members of Global Industrial
and Social Progress Policy Forum,
Global Industrial and Social Progress
Research Institute (GISPRI)
The Kyoto Conference
on Global Warming Mitigation (United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change, Third Conference of Parties) will be held in December
of this year, assembling 166 Party countries in the world. It will be,
in a true sense, a historic conference, aiming to adopt a protocol for
global warming mitigation measures toward the 21st century. It shall
be remembered in forthcoming years as the first stride in establishing
global warming measures of the 21st century with the joint efforts of
We hope that the Government
of Japan, under the obligation as the Chair-nation of the Conference,
is to demonstrate its leadership for the successful adoption of a Kyoto
Protocol that incorporates practical and effective emission reduction
measures including quantified objectives, and continue to exert and
dedicate earnest efforts to make the Kyoto Conference an epoch-making
conference in terms of global warming measures.
In concern of the
current circumstance, the interested members of Global Industrial and
Social Progress Policy Forum, Global Industrial and Social Progress
Research Institute would like to present herein the following proposal
for citizens, industries, and the government of Japan.
1) Need effective
policies and measures for emission reduction in transport sector and
inhabitation sector (residential, commercial and institutional building
The global warming
problem arises subsequent to our increasing indulgence in a modern life
style of convenience and comforts. The sectoral assessment of CO2 emissions
in Japan for 1994 indicated that the industry sector (including energy
sector) shared 47.6% of the total emissions with almost flat growth,
while the sectors linking to the daily lives of individuals such as
transport and inhabitation together consisted 43.0% of the total showing
the considerable growth of about 16% for each sector from 1990 to 1995.
The government proposed effort targets stipulates zero increase in inhabitation
sector from the level of 1990 by the year 2010, while setting 17% increase
in transport sector which is viewed with reservation.
Therefore, in addition
to the reduction efforts of industries, the emission control of inhabitation
and, especially, transport sector will be a key to secure the achievement
of reduction targets.
For this, it will
be necessary, in transport sector, to proceed with a fundamental review
of transport policies, including the introduction of urban transport
policies such as the development of public transport infrastructure
and service coordination between different modes of transportation.
Further efforts to develop and dissipate low pollution cars (electric
cars, hybrid cars, etc.) and the government's introduction of tax-reduction,
etc., for low pollution cars will also be essential. Since a life style
of an individual heavily influences the use of a personal car which
constitutes more than half of total transportation emissions, it may
be inevitable to introduce measures that may interfere with individual
life style. In some cases, the restriction on cars' access to downtown
area of cities may be needed for a limited time period, depending on
the progress of reductions in transport sector.
In the inhabitation
sector, the required measures include the promotion of more energy saving
buildings for residences, such as "energy saving standardization"
for electric appliances, "review of electricity consumed in stand-by
mode," "modification of residential building codes" and
"subsidies for the installation of energy saving equipment,"
in addition to various energy saving measures needed for commercial
2) Need to establish
GHG reduction activities through daily life
The most recent survey
of the Prime Minister's Office indicated that about 60% of Japanese
citizens would be willing to adopt, as a conscientious member of a global
community, a daily life style that incorporates the activities of global
warming gas reduction, rather than the conventional life style of pursuing
conveniences and comforts.
To embrace their willingness,
and to address the global warming issues that are mounting severity,
we must emphasize the value of reviewing our own life style, acknowledge
the possibility of sacrificing in life styles, and recognize the need
to develop self-consciousness to endure such sacrifices.
The government, on
the other hand, must initiate and persevere long-term activities for
the establishment of "life style to allow sustainable development"
among citizens. Such activities include the supplying of various information
needed for citizens to take appropriate and selective actions, for example,
which action will increase the reductions on GHG emissions, what should
be done to make emission reduction possible, or campaigns or enlightening
activities or education and promotion to encourage current and correct
public awareness for environmental situation.
Furthermore, for daily
life acceptance of GHG reduction behavior, it may be necessary to launch
other activities, such as the demonstrative performance by government
officials and other political leaders, or campaigning by famous personnel.
3) Appeal for industries
to further innovative technological development and to fortify emission
led by Keidanren announced the Voluntary Action Plan on Environment,
in which 36 industries (137 associations) presented a practical plan
on global warming mitigation for the year 2010 in agreement with the
Environmental Appeal, aiming to address today's global warming problems.
In the past, Japanese
industries have exerted much effort for achieving energy savings through
technological development and investments on energy efficient equipment,
a measure requiring significant reserve in capitals and human resources.
They have already succeeded in accomplishing significant improvement
of 20-30% in energy efficiencies through innovation and improvement
in daily works, as a countermeasure for energy cost increases experienced
since the oil crisis of 1973. Now, Japan is the most advance in energy
saving technologies, having its technologies of energy saving extended
to the standards of the world. Other developed countries, therefore,
need to implement reduction efforts to reach the level of energy savings
established by Japanese industries.
Although energy saving
measures in Japan may have reached their limits, we would like to request
our industries to exert further efforts for emission reduction with
the reminder that the fundamental energy saving measures would lead
to major economic advantages as well as technological capacity improvement,
and international competitiveness.
4) Promotion of technological
development and technology transfers being a key for emission reduction
IPCC Second Assessment
Report stated that the transfers of existing advanced technologies of
developed countries to developing countries would enable the achievement
of significant energy savings. In other words, promoting energy efficiency
improvement in a global framework will be extremely important. For this,
Japan needs to implement, through cooperation between private and public
sectors, active supports on the activities to contribute to the reinforcement
of technological infrastructure in developing countries, such as technological
cooperation to promote technology transfers and acceptance of trainees.
Also, from long-term
perspectives, we must continue to make efforts to the development of
more advanced energy saving technologies, and the development and commercialization
of innovative next generation technologies such as renewable energies,
and new non-fossil fuel technologies, in addition to efficiency improvement
and technological advancement of energy utilization.
For the development
of such innovative technologies requires highly advanced technological
capacity and considerable capitals, it is essential for the developed
countries that possess such capacities to promote, and cooperate in,
such activities under an international framework. This is where Japan
will be able to make the greatest contribution, and it must promote
technology transfers and technological development through the joint
efforts of government and industries.
5) Proposal for Kyoto
We would like to propose
herein the following five items to be included in a protocol to be adopted
at the Kyoto Conference on Global Warming Mitigation in December:
(i) Establishing concrete
reduction targets for the year 2010, to attain early stabilization of
GHGs atmospheric concentration
(ii) Adopting quantitative
objectives to be "differentiated" in consideration of "fairness"
to reflect actual emission and past reduction efforts of each country
(iii) Adopting the
"tradable permits" and realizing early transfer from "Activities
Implemented Jointly" to "Joint Implementation," as frameworks
to introduce more practicality to reduction targets and to allow more
flexibility in GHG emission reduction
(iv) Voluntary participation
of developing countries in emission reduction measures
(v) Establishing Ad-hoc
Group Kyoto Mandate (AGKM) to discuss potential measures for developing
IPCC, which is the
greatest source of scientific information on global warming issues,
forecasts that the global warming will occur with considerable certainty,
and that its impacts will include sea level rise, climate change, effects
on ecology, etc. Since anthropogenic emission and resulting global warming
phenomenon will drastically increase global mean temperature to the
extent never seen on earth, the damages will be enormous and incalculable
that may even lead to the destruction of human cultures built through
thousands of years in human history.
Furthermore, it was
predicted that global warming phenomenon may tend to mitigate climates
in the North that can raise food production, while it may cause adverse
impacts to the South limiting the production of foods. In addition,
the developed countries mostly in the North will have sufficient technological
capacities and financial resources that facilitate the introduction
of measures for global warming mitigation, but developing countries
mostly in the South and lacking such resources, will have difficulty
to respond to adverse conditions. We must realize, therefore, that the
global warming issue may have a potential to enlarge the conflict between
North and South.
Interested members of Global Industrial
and Social Progress Policy Forum, Global Industrial and Social Progress
Research Institute (GISPRI)
Takeshi Abiru, President, The Japan
Atomic Power Generation Company
Sumiko Iwao, Professor, Keio University,
Press Research Institute
Yoichi Kaya, Professor, Keio University
Shumpei Kumon, Executive Director, Global
Communication Center, International University of Japan
Mitsuo Kohno, Economist, Director, Institute
of Foreign and Domestic information
Haruo Shimada, Professor, Keio University,
Terumasa Nakanishi, Professor, Kyoto
University, Faculty of Comprehensive Studies on Humanity
Shinji Fukukawa, Chairman and CEO, Dentsu
Institute for Human Studies