Global Environment

Proposal for COP3

October 20, 1997

Interested members of Global Industrial and Social Progress Policy Forum,

Global Industrial and Social Progress Research Institute (GISPRI)


1. Purpose

The Kyoto Conference on Global Warming Mitigation (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Third Conference of Parties) will be held in December of this year, assembling 166 Party countries in the world. It will be, in a true sense, a historic conference, aiming to adopt a protocol for global warming mitigation measures toward the 21st century. It shall be remembered in forthcoming years as the first stride in establishing global warming measures of the 21st century with the joint efforts of the world.

We hope that the Government of Japan, under the obligation as the Chair-nation of the Conference, is to demonstrate its leadership for the successful adoption of a Kyoto Protocol that incorporates practical and effective emission reduction measures including quantified objectives, and continue to exert and dedicate earnest efforts to make the Kyoto Conference an epoch-making conference in terms of global warming measures.

In concern of the current circumstance, the interested members of Global Industrial and Social Progress Policy Forum, Global Industrial and Social Progress Research Institute would like to present herein the following proposal for citizens, industries, and the government of Japan.


2. Proposal 

1) Need effective policies and measures for emission reduction in transport sector and inhabitation sector (residential, commercial and institutional building sector)

The global warming problem arises subsequent to our increasing indulgence in a modern life style of convenience and comforts. The sectoral assessment of CO2 emissions in Japan for 1994 indicated that the industry sector (including energy sector) shared 47.6% of the total emissions with almost flat growth, while the sectors linking to the daily lives of individuals such as transport and inhabitation together consisted 43.0% of the total showing the considerable growth of about 16% for each sector from 1990 to 1995. The government proposed effort targets stipulates zero increase in inhabitation sector from the level of 1990 by the year 2010, while setting 17% increase in transport sector which is viewed with reservation.

Therefore, in addition to the reduction efforts of industries, the emission control of inhabitation and, especially, transport sector will be a key to secure the achievement of reduction targets.

For this, it will be necessary, in transport sector, to proceed with a fundamental review of transport policies, including the introduction of urban transport policies such as the development of public transport infrastructure and service coordination between different modes of transportation. Further efforts to develop and dissipate low pollution cars (electric cars, hybrid cars, etc.) and the government's introduction of tax-reduction, etc., for low pollution cars will also be essential. Since a life style of an individual heavily influences the use of a personal car which constitutes more than half of total transportation emissions, it may be inevitable to introduce measures that may interfere with individual life style. In some cases, the restriction on cars' access to downtown area of cities may be needed for a limited time period, depending on the progress of reductions in transport sector.

In the inhabitation sector, the required measures include the promotion of more energy saving buildings for residences, such as "energy saving standardization" for electric appliances, "review of electricity consumed in stand-by mode," "modification of residential building codes" and "subsidies for the installation of energy saving equipment," in addition to various energy saving measures needed for commercial buildings.

2) Need to establish GHG reduction activities through daily life

The most recent survey of the Prime Minister's Office indicated that about 60% of Japanese citizens would be willing to adopt, as a conscientious member of a global community, a daily life style that incorporates the activities of global warming gas reduction, rather than the conventional life style of pursuing conveniences and comforts.

To embrace their willingness, and to address the global warming issues that are mounting severity, we must emphasize the value of reviewing our own life style, acknowledge the possibility of sacrificing in life styles, and recognize the need to develop self-consciousness to endure such sacrifices.

The government, on the other hand, must initiate and persevere long-term activities for the establishment of "life style to allow sustainable development" among citizens. Such activities include the supplying of various information needed for citizens to take appropriate and selective actions, for example, which action will increase the reductions on GHG emissions, what should be done to make emission reduction possible, or campaigns or enlightening activities or education and promotion to encourage current and correct public awareness for environmental situation.

Furthermore, for daily life acceptance of GHG reduction behavior, it may be necessary to launch other activities, such as the demonstrative performance by government officials and other political leaders, or campaigning by famous personnel.

3) Appeal for industries to further innovative technological development and to fortify emission reduction measures

Japanese industries led by Keidanren announced the Voluntary Action Plan on Environment, in which 36 industries (137 associations) presented a practical plan on global warming mitigation for the year 2010 in agreement with the Environmental Appeal, aiming to address today's global warming problems.

In the past, Japanese industries have exerted much effort for achieving energy savings through technological development and investments on energy efficient equipment, a measure requiring significant reserve in capitals and human resources. They have already succeeded in accomplishing significant improvement of 20-30% in energy efficiencies through innovation and improvement in daily works, as a countermeasure for energy cost increases experienced since the oil crisis of 1973. Now, Japan is the most advance in energy saving technologies, having its technologies of energy saving extended to the standards of the world. Other developed countries, therefore, need to implement reduction efforts to reach the level of energy savings established by Japanese industries.

Although energy saving measures in Japan may have reached their limits, we would like to request our industries to exert further efforts for emission reduction with the reminder that the fundamental energy saving measures would lead to major economic advantages as well as technological capacity improvement, and international competitiveness.

4) Promotion of technological development and technology transfers being a key for emission reduction

IPCC Second Assessment Report stated that the transfers of existing advanced technologies of developed countries to developing countries would enable the achievement of significant energy savings. In other words, promoting energy efficiency improvement in a global framework will be extremely important. For this, Japan needs to implement, through cooperation between private and public sectors, active supports on the activities to contribute to the reinforcement of technological infrastructure in developing countries, such as technological cooperation to promote technology transfers and acceptance of trainees.

Also, from long-term perspectives, we must continue to make efforts to the development of more advanced energy saving technologies, and the development and commercialization of innovative next generation technologies such as renewable energies, and new non-fossil fuel technologies, in addition to efficiency improvement and technological advancement of energy utilization.

For the development of such innovative technologies requires highly advanced technological capacity and considerable capitals, it is essential for the developed countries that possess such capacities to promote, and cooperate in, such activities under an international framework. This is where Japan will be able to make the greatest contribution, and it must promote technology transfers and technological development through the joint efforts of government and industries.

5) Proposal for Kyoto Protocol

We would like to propose herein the following five items to be included in a protocol to be adopted at the Kyoto Conference on Global Warming Mitigation in December:

(i) Establishing concrete reduction targets for the year 2010, to attain early stabilization of GHGs atmospheric concentration

(ii) Adopting quantitative objectives to be "differentiated" in consideration of "fairness" to reflect actual emission and past reduction efforts of each country

(iii) Adopting the "tradable permits" and realizing early transfer from "Activities Implemented Jointly" to "Joint Implementation," as frameworks to introduce more practicality to reduction targets and to allow more flexibility in GHG emission reduction

(iv) Voluntary participation of developing countries in emission reduction measures

(v) Establishing Ad-hoc Group Kyoto Mandate (AGKM) to discuss potential measures for developing countries


IPCC, which is the greatest source of scientific information on global warming issues, forecasts that the global warming will occur with considerable certainty, and that its impacts will include sea level rise, climate change, effects on ecology, etc. Since anthropogenic emission and resulting global warming phenomenon will drastically increase global mean temperature to the extent never seen on earth, the damages will be enormous and incalculable that may even lead to the destruction of human cultures built through thousands of years in human history.

Furthermore, it was predicted that global warming phenomenon may tend to mitigate climates in the North that can raise food production, while it may cause adverse impacts to the South limiting the production of foods. In addition, the developed countries mostly in the North will have sufficient technological capacities and financial resources that facilitate the introduction of measures for global warming mitigation, but developing countries mostly in the South and lacking such resources, will have difficulty to respond to adverse conditions. We must realize, therefore, that the global warming issue may have a potential to enlarge the conflict between North and South.

Interested members of Global Industrial and Social Progress Policy Forum, Global Industrial and Social Progress Research Institute (GISPRI)

Takeshi Abiru, President, The Japan Atomic Power Generation Company

Sumiko Iwao, Professor, Keio University, Press Research Institute

Yoichi Kaya, Professor, Keio University

Shumpei Kumon, Executive Director, Global Communication Center, International University of Japan

Mitsuo Kohno, Economist, Director, Institute of Foreign and Domestic information

Haruo Shimada, Professor, Keio University, Economic Faculty

Terumasa Nakanishi, Professor, Kyoto University, Faculty of Comprehensive Studies on Humanity

Shinji Fukukawa, Chairman and CEO, Dentsu Institute for Human Studies